Dr. Lisa performs a real-time colposcopy on Carla in the exam room. A colposcopy is a diagnostic procedure in which a camera inserted into the vaginal canal illuminates and magnifies the cells of the cervix, vulva and vagina. Doctors perform a colposcopy as a follow-up to an abnormal pap smear; both a diagnosis and a treatment in one, it allows doctors to remove abnormal cells and biopsy them in one step.